This is rough - but at least it's a starting point. One of my frustrations in Big World Testing is that it can be hard to visually identify resource types (at first), and also there's no mouse-over tooltip to tell you what that giant tree is you can't harvest. I found this online, though it's not 100% accurate.
The lowest level wood at this point is called "Knotwood" in live. I *think* Oak is separate, unless they actually changed it while playing - but I seem to recall oak stacking separately from knotwood, at least at one point. Knotwood are the generic trees you see everywhere.
I'll try to eventually do some screen-grabs of the actual resources themselves, for visual ID purposes.
As I either datamine or can compile results myself, I'll update the crafting grid with what each resource does in terms of outcome. So far the only one I've definitively seen impact the end result item is metal variation, where each metal type or alloy gives a specific stat. I *think* so far the rest just impact quality and durability, but not sure. If anyone else knows, please comment!
In addition to tier ranking, there are the usual "quality grade" of each harvest. I've so far gotten grey, blue, and green - either I had weird luck, or the green is actually higher quality than the blue I was getting, as I got a lot more blues in my efforts. Higher input resource raises the difficulty level, but also the strength of the final product.